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Next Wave: Available By-product Hydrogen in the Nordic Countries

An overview for the availability of by-product hydrogen in Finland, Sweden and Norway.
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Electrification of the transport sector already began and the Nordic countries, specifically Norway and Iceland, have taken major steps resulting in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) already accounting for a substantial percentage of the total sales. The world is looking towards the Nordics as they are providing global examples for success.

However, little is happening regarding larger vehicles as battery solution still are not able to provide heavy-duty users (e.g., buses, trucks and lorries) the mobility they need. Fuel cell electric vehicles using hydrogen as a fuel can solve this. The project focuses on providing infrastructure for a large-scale deployment of trucks, buses and lorries. The goal is to further stimulate the global technological lead, which the Nordic countries have by stimulating the very first hydrogen infrastructure roll-out for larger vehicles while at the same time map how the infrastructure build-up needs to be done, so that the transition to hydrogen vehicles can happen smoothly.

Such roll-out will also benefit the use of hydrogen for trains and the maritime sector. Furthermore, in addition of sourcing the hydrogen as a by-product from the industry, in the Nordic region we have the unique opportunity to produce the hydrogen in a green manner exploiting renewable electricity production.

This publication provides an overview of the availability of by-product hydrogen in Finland, Sweden and Norway. Significant amounts of by-product hydrogen are produced in Finland, Sweden and Norway by chlor-alkali or sodium chlorate industry.

However, it seems that utilisation of this hydrogen is currently very high in Sweden and Norway. Only in Finland there are sites (Äetsä, Joutseno) where significant amounts of hydrogen are vented or utilised only in heat production. Either Iceland or Denmark has any by-product hydrogen production.

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The Next Wave project is co-financed by Nordic Innovation through the Nordic Smart Mobility and Connectivity program and will deliver an analysis on large-scale transport of hydrogen with mobile pipeline, a description of the innovation and business potential for a roll-out of FC-buses in the Nordic region, as well as a coordinated action plan for stimulating the FC truck demand and a prospect for utilising hydrogen in heavy-duty equipment.

Finally, the project will contribute to national and Nordic hydrogen strategy processes even providing input to a possible Nordic hydrogen strategy.


Portrait Nina Egeli

Nina Egeli

Senior Innovation Adviser
Internationalization, innovation and business development support, in combination with a strong background in strategy and policy development are main pillars in Nina’s professional life. Through project design and management, she aims to fit market needs with relevant services and opportunities that allows new business partnerships and business projects to prosper.

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Portrait Ivar Josefsson

Ivar Josefsson

Innovation Adviser
Ivar combines his international experience with an environmental background to identify the most promising Nordic projects for achieving sustainable growth. His main strengths lie within the fields of international relations and environment, and he worked briefly in the international development sector prior to joining Nordic Innovation in 2018.

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